Monday, October 22, 2018, 12:40 AM
Site: Saint Martin's University Moodle
Course: Saint Martin's University Moodle (SMU)
Glossary: Math Notation Help
P

parentheses

  • Syntax: \left(...\right) or ...
  • Ex.: $$2a\left(b+c\right)$$ gives

2a\left(b+c\right)

phi (lower case greek letter)

$$\phi$$ gives \phi

Phi (upper case greek letter)

$$\Phi$$ gives \Phi

pi

$$x=\pi r^2$$ is x=\pi r^2

pi (lower case greek letter)

$$\pi$$ gives \pi

Pi (upper case greek letter)

$$\Pi$$ gives \Pi

plus

$$+$$ is +

plus minus

$$a\pm~b$$ gives a\pm~b

product

  • General syntax for symbols with a kind of lower and upper limits:

\symbolname_{lowerexpression}^{upperexpression}

  • In general, there are two ways how these lower and upper expressions can be placed: centered below and above the symbol or in a subscript / superscript manner. In the first case the symbol name is preceded by the word "big", in the second there is no prefix.
  • Syntax for product symbol:

$$\bigprod_{i=k}^{n}$$   gives  

\bigprod_{i=k}^{n}

and

$$\prod_{i=k}^{n}$$   gives 

\prod_{i=k}^{n}

  • Use font size commands for a nicer picture:

$$\LARGE\bigprod_{\tiny{i=k}}^{\tiny{n}}$$   gives  

\LARGE\bigprod_{\tiny{i=k}}^{\tiny{n}} 

and

$$\large\prod_{\small{i=k}}^{\small{n}}$$   gives 

\large\prod_{\small{i=k}}^{\small{n}}

psi (lower case greek letter)

$$\psi$$ gives \psi

Psi (upper case greek letter)

$$\Psi$$ gives \Psi
R

relativity

E=mc^2

rho (lower case greek letter)

$$\rho$$ gives \rho

right only brace

  • Syntax: \left.{...\right}  (note the dot!)
  • Ex.: $$\left.{{\rm~term1\atop\rm~term2}\right}=y$$ gives

\left.{{\rm~term1\atop\rm~term2}\right}=y

(\rm~something switches to roman style)

root

  • Syntax: \sqrt[n]{arg} or simply  \sqrt{arg} for \sqrt[2]{arg}
  • Ex.: $$\sqrt[3]{8}$$ gives

\sqrt[3]{8}

  • Ex.: $$\sqrt{-1}$$ gives

\sqrt{-1}

  • Nesting of roots (and combining with fractions, ...etc.) are possible.
  • Ex.: $$\sqrt[n]{\frac{x^n-y^n}{1+u^{2n}}}$$ gives

\sqrt[n]{\frac{x^n-y^n}{1+u^{2n}}}

  • Ex.: $$\sqrt[3]{-q+\sqrt{q^2+p^3}}$$ gives

\sqrt[3]{-q+\sqrt{q^2+p^3}}

S

s.u.m

$$\sum_{n+2}^x$$  is  \sum_{n+2}^x

sigma (lower case greek letter)

$$\sigma$$ gives \sigma

Sigma (upper case greek letter)

$$\Sigma$$ gives \Sigma

smiley

$$~\unitlength{.6}~\picture(100){~~(50,50){\circle(99)}~ ~(20,55;50,0;2){+1$\hat\bullet}~~(50,40){\bullet}~~(50,35){\circle(50,25;34)}~ ~(50,35){\circle(50,45;34)}}$$  is ~\unitlength{.6}~\picture(100){~~(50,50){\circle(99)}~ ~(20,55;50,0;2){+1$\hat\bullet}~~(50,40){\bullet}~~(50,35){\circle(50,25;34)}~ ~(50,35){\circle(50,45;34)}}

square bracket

  • Synatx: \left[...\right]
  • Ex.: $$\left[a,b\right]$$ gives \left[a,b\right]

square root

  • $$\sqrt{a}$$ or $$\sqrt~a$$ gives \sqrt~a
  • Use braces for terms with more than one character: $$\sqrt{x+y}$$ gives

\sqrt{x+y}

subscript

  • The command character "_" triggers subscription of the following expression(s).
  • For more than one subscripted character put them in braces {...}.
  • Use font sizing commands for appropriate sizing.
  • Ex.:$$x_1$$ gives

x_1

  • Ex.:$$a_{m+2n}$$ gives

a_{m+2n}

  • Ex. (with specific sizing):  $$x_{\small1}=a_{\small{m+2n}}$$ gives

x_{\small1}=a_{\small{m+2n}}

  • Combine subscripting with superscripting (command character "^").
    Syntax: Expr_{subExpr}^{supExpr}.
  • Ex.: $$A_{\small{i,j,k}}^{\small{-n+2}}$$ gives

A_{\small{i,j,k}}^{\small{-n+2}}

sum (summation)

  • General syntax for symbols with a kind of lower and upper limits:

\symbolname_{lowerexpression}^{upperexpression}

  • In general, there are two ways how these lower and upper expressions can be placed: centered below and above the symbol or in a subscript / superscript manner. In the first case the symbol name is preceded by the word "big", in the second there is no prefix.
  • Syntax for summation symbol:

$$\bigsum_{i=k}^{n}$$   gives  

\bigsum_{i=k}^{n}

and

$$\sum_{i=k}^{n}$$   gives 

\sum_{i=k}^{n}

  • Use font size commands for a nicer picture:

$$\LARGE\bigsum_{\small{i=1}}^{\small{n}}$$   gives  

\LARGE\bigsum_{\small{i=1}}^{\small{n}}

and

$$\large\sum_{\small{i=1}}^{\small{n}}$$   gives 

\large\sum_{\small{i=1}}^{\small{n}}

superscript

  • The command character "^" triggers superscription of the following expression(s).
  • For more than one superscripted character put them in braces {...}.
  • Use font sizing commands for appropriate sizing.
  • Ex.: $$x^2$$ gives

x^2

  • Ex.: $$a^{m+2n}$$ gives

a^{m+2n}

  • Ex. (with specific sizing): $$x^{\small2}=a^{\small{m+2n}}$$ gives

x^{\small2}=a^{\small{m+2n}}

  • Combine superscripting with subscripting (command character "_").
    Syntax: Expr_{subExpr}^{supExpr}.
  • Ex.: $$A_{\small{i,j,k}}^{\small{-n+2}}$$ gives

A_{\small{i,j,k}}^{\small{-n+2}}

T

tau (lower case greek letter)

$$\tau$$ gives \tau

TeX

TeX  notation allows for the expression of ASCII characters to generate formatted graphics output

theta (lower case greek letter)

$$\theta$$ gives \theta

Theta (upper case greek letter)

$$\Theta$$ gives \Theta

times

$$a\times~b$$ gives a\times~b

triangle

$$\triangle~abc$$ gives \triangle~abc

triggering the TeX filter

  • Two double $'s embracing a valid math expression trigger the filter to generate and insert the formula gif.
  • Ex.:  $$a^2$$ produces a^2
U

upsilon (lower case greek letter)

$$\upsilon$$ gives \upsilon

Upsilon (upper case greek letter)

$$\Upsilon$$ gives \Upsilon
V

varepsilon (special lower case greek letter)

$$\varepsilon$$ gives \varepsilon

variables

  • Variables in formulas are rendered in italic roman font face, which is a widely used convention.
  • Following this convention, constants are shown as non-italic.
  • Exp.: $$f(x)=3a+x$$ gives

f(x)=3a+x

varphi (special lower case greek letter)

$$\varphi$$ gives \varphi

varpi (special lower case greek letter)

$$\varpi$$ gives \varpi

varrho (special lower case greek letter)

$$\varrho$$ gives \varrho

varsigma (special lower greek letter)

$$\varsigma$$ gives \varsigma

vartheta (special lower case greek letter)

$$\vartheta$$ gives \vartheta

vertical line (absolute value, determinant, ...etc. symbol)

  • Syntax: \left|...\right|
  • Ex.: $$\left|b-a\right|$$ gives \left|b-a\right|
  • Ex.: $${\rm~det}\left|\begin{array}{cc}a&b\\c&d \end{array}\right|$$ gives  

{\rm~det}\left|\begin{array}{cc}a&b\\c&d \end{array}\right| 

 
("\rm~something" renders "something" in roman style)

X

xi (lower case greek letter)

$$\xi$$ gives \xi

Xi (upper case greek letter)

$$\Xi$$ gives \Xi
Z

zeta (lower case greek letter)

$$\zeta$$ gives \zeta