Monday, October 22, 2018, 12:40 AM
Site: Saint Martin's University Moodle
Course: Saint Martin's University Moodle (SMU)
Glossary: Math Notation Help
P

parentheses

• Syntax: \left(...\right) or $...$
• Ex.: $$2a\left(b+c\right)$$ gives

$2a\left(b+c\right)$

phi (lower case greek letter)

$$\phi$$ gives $\phi$

Phi (upper case greek letter)

$$\Phi$$ gives $\Phi$

pi

$$x=\pi r^2$$ is $x=\pi r^2$

pi (lower case greek letter)

$$\pi$$ gives $\pi$

Pi (upper case greek letter)

$$\Pi$$ gives $\Pi$

plus

$$+$$ is $+$

plus minus

$$a\pm~b$$ gives $a\pm~b$

product

• General syntax for symbols with a kind of lower and upper limits:

\symbolname_{lowerexpression}^{upperexpression}

• In general, there are two ways how these lower and upper expressions can be placed: centered below and above the symbol or in a subscript / superscript manner. In the first case the symbol name is preceded by the word "big", in the second there is no prefix.
• Syntax for product symbol:

$$\bigprod_{i=k}^{n}$$   gives

$\bigprod_{i=k}^{n}$

and

$$\prod_{i=k}^{n}$$   gives

$\prod_{i=k}^{n}$

• Use font size commands for a nicer picture:

$$\LARGE\bigprod_{\tiny{i=k}}^{\tiny{n}}$$   gives

$\LARGE\bigprod_{\tiny{i=k}}^{\tiny{n}}$

and

$$\large\prod_{\small{i=k}}^{\small{n}}$$   gives

$\large\prod_{\small{i=k}}^{\small{n}}$

psi (lower case greek letter)

$$\psi$$ gives $\psi$

Psi (upper case greek letter)

$$\Psi$$ gives $\Psi$
R

relativity

$E=mc^2$

rho (lower case greek letter)

$$\rho$$ gives $\rho$

right only brace

• Syntax: \left.{...\right}  (note the dot!)
• Ex.: $$\left.{{\rm~term1\atop\rm~term2}\right}=y$$ gives

$\left.{{\rm~term1\atop\rm~term2}\right}=y$

(\rm~something switches to roman style)

root

• Syntax: \sqrt[n]{arg} or simply  \sqrt{arg} for \sqrt[2]{arg}
• Ex.: $$\sqrt[3]{8}$$ gives

$\sqrt[3]{8}$

• Ex.: $$\sqrt{-1}$$ gives

$\sqrt{-1}$

• Nesting of roots (and combining with fractions, ...etc.) are possible.
• Ex.: $$\sqrt[n]{\frac{x^n-y^n}{1+u^{2n}}}$$ gives

$\sqrt[n]{\frac{x^n-y^n}{1+u^{2n}}}$

• Ex.: $$\sqrt[3]{-q+\sqrt{q^2+p^3}}$$ gives

$\sqrt[3]{-q+\sqrt{q^2+p^3}}$

S

s.u.m

$$\sum_{n+2}^x$$  is  $\sum_{n+2}^x$

sigma (lower case greek letter)

$$\sigma$$ gives $\sigma$

Sigma (upper case greek letter)

$$\Sigma$$ gives $\Sigma$

smiley

$$~\unitlength{.6}~\picture(100){~~(50,50){\circle(99)}~ ~(20,55;50,0;2){+1\hat\bullet}~~(50,40){\bullet}~~(50,35){\circle(50,25;34)}~ ~(50,35){\circle(50,45;34)}}$$  is $~\unitlength{.6}~\picture(100){~~(50,50){\circle(99)}~ ~(20,55;50,0;2){+1\hat\bullet}~~(50,40){\bullet}~~(50,35){\circle(50,25;34)}~ ~(50,35){\circle(50,45;34)}}$

square bracket

• Synatx: \left[...\right]
• Ex.: $$\left[a,b\right]$$ gives $\left[a,b\right]$

square root

• $$\sqrt{a}$$ or $$\sqrt~a$$ gives $\sqrt~a$
• Use braces for terms with more than one character: $$\sqrt{x+y}$$ gives

$\sqrt{x+y}$

subscript

• The command character "_" triggers subscription of the following expression(s).
• For more than one subscripted character put them in braces {...}.
• Use font sizing commands for appropriate sizing.
• Ex.:$$x_1$$ gives

$x_1$

• Ex.:$$a_{m+2n}$$ gives

$a_{m+2n}$

• Ex. (with specific sizing):  $$x_{\small1}=a_{\small{m+2n}}$$ gives

$x_{\small1}=a_{\small{m+2n}}$

• Combine subscripting with superscripting (command character "^").
Syntax: Expr_{subExpr}^{supExpr}.
• Ex.: $$A_{\small{i,j,k}}^{\small{-n+2}}$$ gives

$A_{\small{i,j,k}}^{\small{-n+2}}$

sum (summation)

• General syntax for symbols with a kind of lower and upper limits:

\symbolname_{lowerexpression}^{upperexpression}

• In general, there are two ways how these lower and upper expressions can be placed: centered below and above the symbol or in a subscript / superscript manner. In the first case the symbol name is preceded by the word "big", in the second there is no prefix.
• Syntax for summation symbol:

$$\bigsum_{i=k}^{n}$$   gives

$\bigsum_{i=k}^{n}$

and

$$\sum_{i=k}^{n}$$   gives

$\sum_{i=k}^{n}$

• Use font size commands for a nicer picture:

$$\LARGE\bigsum_{\small{i=1}}^{\small{n}}$$   gives

$\LARGE\bigsum_{\small{i=1}}^{\small{n}}$

and

$$\large\sum_{\small{i=1}}^{\small{n}}$$   gives

$\large\sum_{\small{i=1}}^{\small{n}}$

superscript

• The command character "^" triggers superscription of the following expression(s).
• For more than one superscripted character put them in braces {...}.
• Use font sizing commands for appropriate sizing.
• Ex.: $$x^2$$ gives

$x^2$

• Ex.: $$a^{m+2n}$$ gives

$a^{m+2n}$

• Ex. (with specific sizing): $$x^{\small2}=a^{\small{m+2n}}$$ gives

$x^{\small2}=a^{\small{m+2n}}$

• Combine superscripting with subscripting (command character "_").
Syntax: Expr_{subExpr}^{supExpr}.
• Ex.: $$A_{\small{i,j,k}}^{\small{-n+2}}$$ gives

$A_{\small{i,j,k}}^{\small{-n+2}}$

T

tau (lower case greek letter)

$$\tau$$ gives $\tau$

TeX

$TeX$  notation allows for the expression of ASCII characters to generate formatted graphics output

theta (lower case greek letter)

$$\theta$$ gives $\theta$

Theta (upper case greek letter)

$$\Theta$$ gives $\Theta$

times

$$a\times~b$$ gives $a\times~b$

triangle

$$\triangle~abc$$ gives $\triangle~abc$

triggering the TeX filter

• Two double \$'s embracing a valid math expression trigger the filter to generate and insert the formula gif.
• Ex.:  $$a^2$$ produces $a^2$
U

upsilon (lower case greek letter)

$$\upsilon$$ gives $\upsilon$

Upsilon (upper case greek letter)

$$\Upsilon$$ gives $\Upsilon$
V

varepsilon (special lower case greek letter)

$$\varepsilon$$ gives $\varepsilon$

variables

• Variables in formulas are rendered in italic roman font face, which is a widely used convention.
• Following this convention, constants are shown as non-italic.
• Exp.: $$f(x)=3a+x$$ gives

$f(x)=3a+x$

varphi (special lower case greek letter)

$$\varphi$$ gives $\varphi$

varpi (special lower case greek letter)

$$\varpi$$ gives $\varpi$

varrho (special lower case greek letter)

$$\varrho$$ gives $\varrho$

varsigma (special lower greek letter)

$$\varsigma$$ gives $\varsigma$

vartheta (special lower case greek letter)

$$\vartheta$$ gives $\vartheta$

vertical line (absolute value, determinant, ...etc. symbol)

• Syntax: \left|...\right|
• Ex.: $$\left|b-a\right|$$ gives $\left|b-a\right|$
• Ex.: $${\rm~det}\left|\begin{array}{cc}a&b\\c&d \end{array}\right|$$ gives

${\rm~det}\left|\begin{array}{cc}a&b\\c&d \end{array}\right|$

("\rm~something" renders "something" in roman style)

X

xi (lower case greek letter)

$$\xi$$ gives $\xi$

Xi (upper case greek letter)

$$\Xi$$ gives $\Xi$
Z

zeta (lower case greek letter)

$$\zeta$$ gives $\zeta$