Monday, June 1, 2020, 4:35 PM
Site: Saint Martin's University Moodle
Course: Saint Martin's University Moodle (SMU)
Glossary: Math Notation Help


  • \; (backslash semicolon) inserts the third smallest predefined space in a formula
  • Equivalent: \hspace{6}
  • Ex.: $$a\;b$$ gives a\;b
  • Ex.: $$a~\hspace{6}~b$$ gives also a~\hspace{6}~b


  • \: inserts the second smallest predefined space in a formula
  • Equivalent: \hspace{4}
  • Ex.: $$a\:b$$ gives a\:b
  • Ex.: $$a~\hspace{4}~b$$ gives also a~\hspace{4}~b

\/ (backslash slash)

  • \/ (backslash slash) avoids ligatures
  • Ex.: $$V\/A$$ gives V\/A in contrast to $$VA$$ which gives VA


  • In order to prevent some browser specific problems with whitespaces, it is advisable to use ~ (tilde) as the whitespace instead of the normal blank key (in places where whitespaces are mandatory, e.g. after commands).
  • Ex.: $$\frac~xy$$ to produce \frac~xy
  • Ex.: $$\sqrt~n$$ to produce \sqrt~n


  • inserts a space of n pixels
  • Ex.: $$f(x)\hspace{6}=\hspace{6}0$$ gives f(x)\hspace{6}=\hspace{6}0
  • can be combined with the preceding command \unitlength{m}(default: m=1px) , which defines the applied unit
  • Ex.: $$\unitlength{20}a\hspace{2}b$$ gives \unitlength{20}a\hspace{2}b , i.e. a space of 20x2=40px


  • inserts a double space of current character set size
  • Ex.: $$a\qquad~b$$ gives a\qquad~b


  • inserts a space of current character set size
  • Ex.: $$a\quad~b$$ gives a\quad~b

math spaces

List of predefined spaces:

Math Spaces
\, (smallest predefined)$$a\,b$$a\,b
\:  (second smallest predefined)$$a\:b$$a\:b
\;  (third smallest predefined)$$a\;b$$a\;b
\/  (avoiding ligatures)$$V\/A$$ instead of $$VA$$V\/A instead of VA
\quad  (space of current character set size)$$a\quad~b$$a\quad~b
\qquad  (double space of current character set size)$$a\qquad~b$$a\qquad~b
\_ (where _ is blank!)

$$a\ b$$

(whereas $$a\b$$ is not a valid filter expression since the blank space is missing; it is recommended to use the tilde ~ instead of the simple whitespace)

a\ b

\hspace{n} ,where n positive integer (= n Pixels)









\unitlength{m}\hspace{n}, changes the default unit length (m=1px) to be applied


(second space is 10x2=20px)


Note: Simple blank spaces and tildes (~) are ignored by the TeX filter and don't produce any space. You must use one of the defined math spaces to get a visible (extra) space.


alpha (lower case greek letter)

$$\alpha$$ gives \alpha

beta (lower case greek letter)

$$\beta$$ gives \beta