Math Notation Help

This glossary will help you build complex mathematical equations using the Tex markup language. This will involve using @@ or $$ before and after the expression to display the desired results.
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$$\kappa$ gives \kappa$$


lambda (lower case greek letter)

$$\lambda$ gives \lambda$$

Lambda (upper case greek letter)

$$\Lambda$ gives \Lambda$$

Learning Formula

\frac{success}{problem}=~\unitlength{.6}~\picture(100){~~(50,50){\circle(99)}~ ~(20,55;50,0;2){+1$\hat\bullet}~~(50,40){\bullet}~~(50,35){\circle(50,25;34)}~ ~(50,35){\circle(50,45;34)}}

left only brace

  • Syntax: \left{...\right.  (note the dot at the end!)
  • Ex.: $$f(x)=\left{{x^2, \rm~if x>-1\atop~0, \rm~else}\right.$ gives </font></li></ul><p align="center"><font color="#000000">f(x)=\left{{x^2, \rm~if x>-1\atop~0, \rm~else}\right.$$

    (\rm~something switches to roman style)

less than

$$<$   gives</p><p align="center"><$$

less than or equal

$$x\le~y$ or $$x\leq~y$ gives



math spaces

List of predefined spaces:

Math Spaces
\, (smallest predefined)$$a\,b$</td><td valign="top" width="33%">a\,b$$
\:  (second smallest predefined)$$a\:b$</td><td valign="top" width="33%">a\:b$$
\;  (third smallest predefined)$$a\;b$</td><td valign="top" width="33%">a\;b </td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%">\/  (avoiding ligatures)</td><td valign="top" width="33%">$$V\/A$ instead of $$VA$</td><td valign="top" width="33%">V\/A instead of VA$$
\quad  (space of current character set size)$$a\quad~b$</td><td valign="top" width="33%">a\quad~b$$
\qquad  (double space of current character set size)$$a\qquad~b$</td><td valign="top" width="33%">a\qquad~b</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%">\_ <em>(where _ is blank!)</em></td><td valign="top" width="33%"><p>$$a\ b$

(whereas $$a\b$ is <em>not</em> a valid filter expression since the blank space is missing; it is recommended to use the tilde ~ instead of the simple whitespace)</font></p></td><td valign="top" width="33%"><p>a\ b</p><p></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%">\hspace{n} ,where n positive integer (= n Pixels)</td><td valign="top" width="33%"><p>$$a~\hspace{30}~b$


$$a~\hspace{1}~b$</p></td><td valign="top" width="33%"><p>a~\hspace{30}~b</p><p>a~\hspace{15}~b</p><p>a~\hspace{2}~b</p><p>a~\hspace{1}~b</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%">\unitlength{m}\hspace{n}, changes the default unit length (m=1px) to be applied</td><td valign="top" width="33%"><p>$$a~\hspace{2}~b\unitlength{10}~\hspace{2}~c$

(second space is 10x2=20px)


Note: Simple blank spaces and tildes (~) are ignored by the TeX filter and don't produce any space. You must use one of the defined math spaces to get a visible (extra) space.

mathematics expression

  • A valid expression inside the $'s is rendered as mathematics in an inserted gif image.
  • Ex.: $$x=y^2$ creates  </li></ul><p align="center">x=y^2$$


  • An (m,n)-matrix is considered as an array of m*n elements, where the elements of a column are separated by "&" and the rows by "\\".
  • Syntax for an (m,n)-matrix:
    \begin{array}{colformat}a11&...&a1n\\a21&...&a2n\\... \\am1&...&amn \end{array}

    colformat defines the format of each of the n columns: l for left, r for right and c for center (hence {ccccc} defines for a (m,5)-matrix in which all columns are centered)

  • Ex.: $$\left(\begin{array}{lcr}a_{\tiny1}+d & a_{\tiny2}+d & a_{\tiny3}+d \\ b_{\tiny1}& b_{\tiny2}& b_{\tiny3} \\ c_{\tiny1} & c_{\tiny2} & c_{\tiny3} \end{array}\right)$ gives</li></ul><p align="center">\left(\begin{array}{lcr}a_{\tiny1}+d & a_{\tiny2}+d & a_{\tiny3}+d \\ b_{\tiny1}& b_{\tiny2}& b_{\tiny3} \\ c_{\tiny1} & c_{\tiny2} & c_{\tiny3} \end{array}\right)$$

    Note in the example above that "lcr" has the effect that column 1 is left aligned, column 2 centered and colums 3 right aligned.

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