Math Notation Help

This glossary will help you build complex mathematical equations using the Tex markup language. This will involve using @@ or $$ before and after the expression to display the desired results.
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  • Syntax: \left{...\right}
  • Ex.: $$M=\left{a, b, c\right}$$ gives

M=\left{a, b, c\right}

delimiters (overview)

Delimiters (parentheses, braces, brackets. ...)

\left(... \right)

\left[... \right]$$\left[a^2+b^2~\right]$$\left[a^2+b^2~\right]
\left{... \right}$$\left{x^2, x^3, x^4,... \right}$$\left{x^2, x^3, x^4,... \right}
\left\langle... \right\rangle$$\left\langle a,b~\right\rangle$$\left\langle a,b~\right\rangle
\left| ... \right| $$\det\left|\array{a&b\\c&d}\right| $$\det\left|\array{a&b\\c&d}\right|
\left\| ... \right\| $$\left\|f~\right\|$$\left\|f~\right\|

\left{ ... \right.

(note the dot!)

$$f(x)=\left{{x^2, \rm~if x>-1\atop~0, \rm~else}\right.$$

(\rm switches to roman style)

f(x)=\left{{x^2, \rm~if x>-1\atop~0, \rm~else}\right.

\left.{ ... \right\}

(note the dot!)

$$\left.{{\rm~term1\atop\rm~term2}\right}=y$$\left.{{\rm~term1\atop \rm~term2}\right}=y

Note: The delimiters are automatically sizes.

double vertical line (norm symbol)

  • Syntax: \left\|...\right\|
  • Exp.: $$\left\|af\right\| = \left|a\right|\left\|f\right\|$$ gives

\left\|af\right\| = \left|a\right|\left\|f\right\|

left only brace

  • Syntax: \left{...\right.  (note the dot at the end!)
  • Ex.: $$f(x)=\left{{x^2, \rm~if x>-1\atop~0, \rm~else}\right.$$ gives

f(x)=\left{{x^2, \rm~if x>-1\atop~0, \rm~else}\right.

(\rm~something switches to roman style)


  • Syntax: \left(...\right) or ...
  • Ex.: $$2a\left(b+c\right)$$ gives


right only brace

  • Syntax: \left.{...\right}  (note the dot!)
  • Ex.: $$\left.{{\rm~term1\atop\rm~term2}\right}=y$$ gives


(\rm~something switches to roman style)

square bracket

  • Synatx: \left[...\right]
  • Ex.: $$\left[a,b\right]$$ gives \left[a,b\right]

vertical line (absolute value, determinant, ...etc. symbol)

  • Syntax: \left|...\right|
  • Ex.: $$\left|b-a\right|$$ gives \left|b-a\right|
  • Ex.: $${\rm~det}\left|\begin{array}{cc}a&b\\c&d \end{array}\right|$$ gives  

{\rm~det}\left|\begin{array}{cc}a&b\\c&d \end{array}\right| 

("\rm~something" renders "something" in roman style)


\_ (where _ is blank)

  • Ordinary whitespace to be used after a dot not denoting the end of a sentence
  • After commands without parameters use \~ (tilde) instead in order to avoid browser specific problems


  • \, inserts the smallest predefined space in a formula
  • Equivalent: \hspace{2}
  • Ex.: $$a\,b$$ gives a\,b
  • Ex.: $$a~\hspace{2}~b$$ gives also a~\hspace{2}~b

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